Codici sorgente

C | Caricatore codice shell

Caricatore codice shell è un semplice strumento da riga di comando per testare gli shellcode.
È scritto in C e fornito open source.
Funziona su qualsiasi Windows da WinXP fino a Win10.

Caricatore codice shell

Maggiori info e Download nella sua pagina

C++ & Delphi | Algoritmo di crittografia CryptoGear

Crittografia a blocchi a chiave simmetrica sviluppata da BreakingSecurity.

Puoi trovare la sua implementazione C++ qui.
Puoi trovare il suo Delphi implementazione qui.

C++ | Classe RC4

Standard Algoritmo di crittografia RC4.
Semplice e veloce, è un famoso algoritmo utilizzato in molte applicazioni.

cRC4.h :

/***********************************************************
* Standard RC4 Encryption
* C++ Class
* Coded by Viotto © BreakingSecurity.net
***********************************************************/
#include <string>
using namespace std;
class CRC4
{
public:
	CRC4(unsigned char* pKey, unsigned int lenKey);
	CRC4();
	void RC4(unsigned char pData[], unsigned long lenData);
	string RC4Str(unsigned char* pInputData, unsigned long InputSize);
	void Initialize(unsigned char* pKey, unsigned int lenKey);
private:
	int m_sBox[256]; //substitution-box
	int a, b;	
	unsigned char swap;
};

 

cRC4.cpp :

/***********************************************************
* Standard RC4 Encryption
* C++ Class
* Coded by Viotto © BreakingSecurity.net
***********************************************************/

#include "cRC4.h"
// Constructor. It will generate s-box based on the provided key.
// This way future encryption/decryptions routines will not have to recreate s-box each time.
CRC4::CRC4(unsigned char* pKey, unsigned int lenKey)
{
	Initialize(pKey, lenKey);
}
/* Overloaded costructor with no arguments.
   Must initialize s-box manually.           */
CRC4::CRC4()
{}

void CRC4::Initialize(unsigned char* pKey, unsigned int lenKey)
{
	// Initialize substitution box, based on the provided key.
	b = 0;
	for (a = 0; a < 256; a++)
	{
		m_sBox[a] = a;
	}
	for (a = 0; a < 256; a++)
	{
		b = (b + m_sBox[a] + pKey[a % lenKey]) % 256;
		swap = m_sBox[a];
		m_sBox[a] = m_sBox[b];
		m_sBox[b] = swap;
	}
}

void CRC4::RC4(unsigned char pData[], unsigned long lenData)
{
	int sBox[256];
	int i = 0, j = 0;
	long Offset;
	// Create a local copy of the s-box. Better than recreating each time before encrypting/decrypting.
	memcpy(sBox, m_sBox, 256 * sizeof(int));
	//Encrypt the data
	for (Offset = 0; Offset < lenData; Offset++)
	{
		i = (i + 1) % 256;
		j = (j + sBox[i]) % 256;
		swap = sBox[i];
		sBox[i] = sBox[j];
		sBox[j] = swap;
		pData[Offset] ^= sBox[(sBox[i] + sBox[j]) % 256];
	}
}

// This function does not overwrite input with output, but saves it on a separate string.
string CRC4::RC4Str(unsigned char* pInputData, unsigned long InputSize)
{
	string sInputOutputData((char*)pInputData, InputSize);
	RC4((unsigned char*)sInputOutputData.c_str(), InputSize);
	return sInputOutputData;
}
C | Ottieni il percorso del processo dal PID a livello di kernel

A livello di utente, un'attività così semplice è semplice come dovrebbe, grazie all'uso di API come GetModuleFileNameEx().

Tuttavia, non esiste un modo documentato per farlo a livello di kernel.
Ho trovato molte persone che lo chiedevano, ma non ho trovato alcun frammento chiaro funzionante, quindi ho pensato che potesse essere utile condividere il mio.

 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
BOOLEAN KrnGetProcessPath(HANDLE hProcessId)
// ProcessID handle can be get using PsGetCurrentProcessId(),
// or by using process callback routines such as PsSetCreateProcessNotifyRoutine()
{
	HANDLE hProcess = NULL;
	OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES obj_attr;
	CLIENT_ID cid;
	cid.UniqueProcess = hProcessId; 
	cid.UniqueThread = NULL;
	InitializeObjectAttributes(&obj_attr, NULL, 0, NULL, NULL);
	ZwOpenProcess(&hProcess, GENERIC_READ, &obj_attr, &cid);
	// When the ProcessInformationClass parameter is ProcessImageFileName, 
	//	the buffer pointed to by the ProcessInformation parameter should be large enough to hold a UNICODE_STRING structure, 
	//	as well as the string itself.
	WCHAR ustrBuffer[(sizeof(UNICODE_STRING) / sizeof(WCHAR)) + 260];
	UNICODE_STRING ustrPath;
	// Initialize UNICODE_STRING
	ustrPath.Buffer = ustrBuffer;
	ustrPath.Length = 0x0;
	ustrPath.MaximumLength = sizeof(ustrBuffer);
	// Process path will be saved inside the unicode string.
	NTSTATUS ret = ZwQueryInformationProcess(hProcess, ProcessImageFileName, &ustrPath, sizeof(ustrBuffer), NULL);
	if (NT_SUCCESS(ret))
	{
		DbgPrintEx(DPFLTR_IHVDRIVER_ID, 0, "[DEBUG] process path: %wZ\n", ustrPath);
		return TRUE;
	}
	else
	{
		DbgPrintEx(DPFLTR_IHVDRIVER_ID, 0, "[ERROR] error getting process path: %x\n", ret);
		return FALSE;
	}
}
C | LoadDll: alternativa a LoadLibrary

Il codice seguente sostituisce la funzione Windows LoadLibrary(), un modo alternativo per caricare una DLL nel nostro spazio degli indirizzi.

 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
#include <Windows.h>
// UNICODE_STRING structure
typedef struct _UNICODE_STRING 
{
    USHORT Length;
    USHORT MaximumLength;
    PWSTR  Buffer;
} UNICODE_STRING, *PUNICODE_STRING;
//LdrLoadDll function prototype 
typedef NTSTATUS (WINAPI *fLdrLoadDll) 
(
	IN PWCHAR PathToFile OPTIONAL,
	IN ULONG Flags OPTIONAL, 
	IN PUNICODE_STRING ModuleFileName, 
	OUT PHANDLE ModuleHandle 
); 
//RtlInitUnicodeString function prototype
typedef VOID (WINAPI *fRtlInitUnicodeString) 
(
	PUNICODE_STRING DestinationString,
	PCWSTR SourceString
);
HMODULE hNtDll;
fLdrLoadDll _LdrLoadDll;
fRtlInitUnicodeString _RtlInitUnicodeString;
//_____________________________________________
//
// LoadDll: LoadLibrary replacement
// 
// This function loads the specified DLL into our process.
// This function is a replacement for the Windows LoadLibrary() function. 
//
// PARAMETERS:
// szFileName: path of the DLL to load.
//
// RETURN VALUE:
// HMODULE DllHandle: An handle to the DLL module in memory.
//_____________________________________________
//
HMODULE LoadDll( LPCSTR szFileName) 
{  
   // Load required functions dinamically
   hNtDll = GetModuleHandleA("ntdll.dll");
   _LdrLoadDll = (fLdrLoadDll) GetProcAddress( hNtDll, "LdrLoadDll");
   _RtlInitUnicodeString = (fRtlInitUnicodeString) GetProcAddress( hNtDll, "RtlInitUnicodeString");
   int StrLen = lstrlenA(szFileName);
   BSTR WideStr = SysAllocStringLen(NULL, StrLen);
   MultiByteToWideChar(CP_ACP, 0, szFileName, StrLen, WideStr, StrLen);
   UNICODE_STRING usDllName;
   _RtlInitUnicodeString(&usDllName, WideStr);
   SysFreeString(WideStr);
   HANDLE DllHandle; 
   _LdrLoadDll(0, 0, &usDllName, &DllHandle);
   return (HMODULE)DllHandle;
}
int main() //Usage example
{
   HMODULE hmodule = LoadDll("Kernel32.dll");
   return (int)hmodule;
}

C++ | Ricerca file

Una funzione ricorsiva semplice e veloce che può essere utilizzata per cercare un nome di file o parte di esso,
all'interno di una cartella specificata e tutte le sue sottodirectory.

 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
#include <windows.h>
#include <algorithm>
#include <string>
using namespace std;
//_____________________________________________
//
// FileSearch Function
// 
// This function will search for a filename or part of it,
// inside the specified directory and in all of the subdirectories.
// © BreakingSecurity.net
//
// PARAMETERS:
// sSearch: String which specifies a filename, or a part of filename to be searched for.
// sDir: Path to search in (ex: "C:\\Windows")
//_____________________________________________
//
bool FileSearch(string sSearch, string sDir)
{
	// Convert all characters to lowercase
	std::transform(sSearch.begin(), sSearch.end(), sSearch.begin(), ::tolower);
	
	// Check for final slash in path and append it if missing
	if (sDir[sDir.length() -1] != '\\')
	{
		sDir += "\\";
	}
	
	WIN32_FIND_DATA FileInfo;
	HANDLE hFind = FindFirstFileA(string(sDir + "*").c_str(), &FileInfo);
	if (hFind == INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE)
	{
		FindClose(hFind);
		return false;
	}
	string sFileInfo;
	while (FindNextFile(hFind, &FileInfo) != 0)
	{
		if (FileInfo.dwFileAttributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DIRECTORY
			&& strcmp(FileInfo.cFileName, ".") != 0
			&& strcmp(FileInfo.cFileName, "..") != 0)
		{
			// Recursive seach inside subdirectory
			string sRecursiveDir = sDir + string(FileInfo.cFileName);
			FileSearch(sSearch, sRecursiveDir);
		}
		
		string sFileName(FileInfo.cFileName);
		
		// Convert all characters to lowercase
		std::transform(sFileName.begin(), sFileName.end(), sFileName.begin(), ::tolower);
		
		// Check if filename contains search string
		if (sFileName.find(sSearch) != string::npos)
		{
			//Search string has been found inside file name
			printf(string(sDir + FileInfo.cFileName + "\n").c_str());
		}
	}
	FindClose(hFind);
	return true;
}
// Usage example:
// FileSearch.exe "Notepad" "C:Windows"
void main(int argc, char* argv[])
{
	if (argc == 3)
	{
		FileSearch(argv[1], argv[2]);
		printf("Search finished!\n");
	}
	else printf("Wrong number of parameters\n");
	system("pause");
}

C++ | Registratore Viotto .OCX

Viotto OCX Registrator è un semplice strumento per installare, registrare e annullare la registrazione File OCX.
È rilasciato gratuitamente e open source.
È codificato in Embarcadero C++.
Lo si può trovare per saperne di più, clicca qui.

Delphi | Comunicazione tra processi tramite named pipe di Windows

Questo esempio ha lo scopo di mostrare un metodo per far comunicare processi diversi e scambiare dati tra di loro.
Un ringraziamento va a Peter Bloomfield, che ne ha scritto un simpatico tutorial sulle pipe di Windows in C++.
program PipeServer;
// Server application which creates an inbound pipe and waits for data from client processes.
{$APPTYPE CONSOLE}
uses
  SysUtils,
  Windows;
procedure ReceivePipeData();
var
  pipe: Cardinal;
  RecBuffer: Array[0..999] of Byte;
  numBytesRead: DWORD;
  result: LongBool;
  sReadData: AnsiString;
  sa: SECURITY_ATTRIBUTES;
  sd: SECURITY_DESCRIPTOR;
begin
  // Must grant access rights in case User Account Control is on, on WinVista and above,
  // and communicating processes are under a different user (which can be also SYSTEM).
  // Otherwise, the other side of the pipe will receive ERROR_ACCESS_DENIED upon CreateFile().
  // If UAC is on and we are trying to use pipe between a userlevel and a system process,
  // even if we are inside the same user account, pipe communication will fail.
  // In order to avoid this, we must initialize a security descriptor for the pipe.
  InitializeSecurityDescriptor(@sd, SECURITY_DESCRIPTOR_REVISION);
  // There is an important difference between an empty and a nonexistent DACL.
  // When a DACL is empty, it contains no access control entries (ACEs); therefore, no access 
     rights are explicitly granted.
  // As a result, access to the object is implicitly denied.
  // When an object has no DACL (when the pDacl parameter is NULL),
  // no protection is assigned to the object, and all access requests are granted.
  SetSecurityDescriptorDacl(@sd, True, nil, False);
  sa.bInheritHandle := false;
  sa.lpSecurityDescriptor := @sd;
  sa.nLength := sizeof(sa);
  while true do begin
    repeat
      // Create a new pipe to receive data
      pipe := CreateNamedPipe(
         '\.pipeSamplePipe', // Our pipe name
         PIPE_ACCESS_INBOUND, // Read-only pipe
         PIPE_TYPE_MESSAGE or PIPE_READMODE_MESSAGE, //Using Message mode
         PIPE_UNLIMITED_INSTANCES ,
         0,  // No outbound buffer
         0,  // No inbound buffer
         0,  // Use default wait time
         @sa // Set security attributes to grant access rights
      );
      if (pipe = INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE) then begin
        Write('[ERROR] Failed to create pipe. Error code ' + IntToStr(GetLastError()) + #13#10 + 
              'Press Enter to retry');
        Readln;
      end;
    until pipe <> INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE;
    WriteLn('[INFO] Inbound pipe created! Waiting for a client process to connect...');
    // This call blocks until a client process connects to the pipe
    result := ConnectNamedPipe(pipe, nil);
    if (result = false) then begin
      Writeln('[ERROR] Failed to connect to pipe. Error code ' + IntToStr(GetLastError()));
    end
    else begin
      Writeln('[INFO] Client connected! Waiting for data...');
      numBytesRead := 0;
      // The read operation will block until there is data to read
      result := ReadFile(
          pipe,
          RecBuffer[0], // The data from the pipe will be put here
          sizeof(RecBuffer), // Number of bytes allocated
          numBytesRead, // This will store number of bytes actually read
          nil // Not using overlapped IO
      );
      if (result = false) then begin
          Writeln('[ERROR] Failed to read pipe data! Error code ' + IntToStr(GetLastError()));
      end else begin
          SetString(sReadData,PAnsiChar(@recBuffer[0]), numBytesRead); //Copy byte array to string
          Writeln('[SUCCESS] Data received: ' + sReadData);
      end;
    end;
    //Close our pipe handle
    CloseHandle(pipe);
  end;
end;
//Program start procedure
begin
  Writeln('*** Pipe Server Application ***' + #13#10);
  Write('[INFO] Press Enter to create pipe server and start listening for incoming data');
  ReadLn;
  ReceivePipeData();
end.
program PipeClient;
// Client application which sends data to pipe server.
{$APPTYPE CONSOLE}
uses
SysUtils,
Windows,
Classes;
// Data to send via pipe is read from a file.
function GetDataFromFile(sFileName: AnsiString): AnsiString;
var
DataFile: TFileStream;
ReadBuffer: array of Byte;
sDataToSend: AnsiString;
begin
  try
    DataFile := TFileStream.Create( sFileName , fmOpenRead);
    SetLength(ReadBuffer, DataFile.Size);
    DataFile.Read(ReadBuffer[0], Length(ReadBuffer));
    SetString(sDataToSend,PAnsiChar(@ReadBuffer[0]), DataFile.Size); //Copy byte array to string
    DataFile.Free;
    Result := sDataToSend;
  except
    Result := '';
  end;
end;
procedure SendPipeData();
var
pipe: Cardinal;
numBytesWritten: DWORD;
result: LongBool;
sDataToSend: AnsiString;
begin
  repeat
    // Open the named pipe, previusly created by server application
    pipe := CreateFile(
    '\.pipeSamplePipe', // Our pipe name
    GENERIC_WRITE,
    FILE_SHARE_READ or FILE_SHARE_WRITE,
    nil,
    OPEN_EXISTING,
    FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL,
    0
    );
    if (pipe = INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE) then begin
      Write('[ERROR] Failed to open pipe (server must be running first).' + #13#10 + 'Press Enter to 
      retry');
      Readln;
    end;
  until pipe <> INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE;
  repeat
    //Get data to send from file
    sDataToSend := GetDataFromFile(ExtractFilePath(ParamStr(0)) + 'DataToSend.txt');
    if sDataToSend = '' then begin
      Write('[ERROR] Unable to read data from file (may be unexistent or empty).' + #13#10 + 'Press
      Enter to retry');
      Readln;
    end;
  until sDataToSend <> '';
  numBytesWritten := 0;
  result := WriteFile(
  pipe, // Handle to our outbound pipe
  sDataToSend[1], // Pointer to data to send
  Length(sDataToSend), // Length of data to send (bytes)
  numBytesWritten, // Will store actual amount of data sent
  nil // Not using overlapped IO
  );
  if (result = false) then
    Writeln('[ERROR] Failed to send pipe data. Error code ' + IntToStr(GetLastError()))
  else Writeln('[SUCCESS] Pipe data sent: ' + sDataToSend);
  // Close the pipe handle
  CloseHandle(pipe);
end;
//Program start procedure
begin
  Writeln('*** Pipe Client Application ***' + #13#10);
  while true do begin
    Write('[INFO] Press Enter to send pipe data to server');
    Readln;
    SendPipeData();
  end;
end.

VB6 | Viotto Binder

È possibile trovare Viotto Binder fonte nella propria pagina per saperne di più, clicca qui.

VB6 | Finestra di dialogo File senza forma: non sono necessari OCX/Moduli/Componenti!

Con questa semplice classe puoi creare un FileDialog senza alcun modulo necessario, anche senza la necessità di utilizzare comdlg32.OCX e il suo componente Visual CommonDialog su un modulo.

È anche più performante di quando si utilizza il componente OCX.
Lo screenshot a destra mostra la differenza di prestazioni all'apertura di un FileDialog: a sinistra con il tradizionale controllo OCX CommonDialog, a destra chiamate DLL dirette utilizzando questo codice.

' cFileDialog.cls
' by Viotto - www.BreakingSecurity.net
'
' Provides CommonDialog functionality,
' without the need of ocx file and graphical component.
'
' ComDlg32.OCX provides an easy-to-use interface, but if you use the OCX control,
' you have to load the module into memory and also distribute a 90K OCX file to users of your software.
' To improve performance, and eliminate the need of additional dependencies,
' you should minimize the use of controls in your applications.
' Instead, you can use the Win32 API calls directly.
'
' More info from Microsoft: https://support.micr...en-us/kb/161286
 
 
Option Explicit
 
Private Declare Function GetOpenFileName Lib "comdlg32.dll" Alias _
  "GetOpenFileNameA" (pOpenfilename As OPENFILENAME) As Long
  
Private Declare Function GetSaveFileName Lib "comdlg32.dll" Alias _
  "GetSaveFileNameA" (pOpenfilename As OPENFILENAME) As Long
  
Private Declare Sub CopyMemory Lib "kernel32" Alias _
  "RtlMoveMemory" (lpvDest As Any, lpvSource As Any, ByVal cbCopy As Long)
 
Private Type OPENFILENAME
  lStructSize As Long
  hwndOwner As Long
  hInstance As Long
  lpstrFilter As String
  lpstrCustomFilter As String
  nMaxCustFilter As Long
  nFilterIndex As Long
  lpstrFile As String
  nMaxFile As Long
  lpstrFileTitle As String
  nMaxFileTitle As Long
  lpstrInitialDir As String
  lpstrTitle As String
  flags As Long
  nFileOffset As Integer
  nFileExtension As Integer
  lpstrDefExt As String
  lCustData As Long
  lpfnHook As Long
  lpTemplateName As String
End Type
 
Private Dlg As OPENFILENAME
Private bDialogExecuted As Boolean ' will be true if user pressed OK, false if dialog was canceled
 
' This can be used to set an initial filename before displaying the dialog
Public Property Let strFile(value As String)
  CopyMemory ByVal Dlg.lpstrFile, ByVal value, Len(value)
End Property
 
' This can be used to retrieve full path of the selected file, after dialog display.
Public Property Get strFile() As String
  strFile = Dlg.lpstrFile
End Property
 
' This can be used to get the filename (without path) of the selected file, after dialog display.
Public Property Get FileName() As String
  FileName = Dlg.lpstrFileTitle
End Property
 
Public Property Get Executed() As Boolean
  Executed = bDialogExecuted
End Property
 
' Set dialog title
Public Property Let Title(value As String)
  Dlg.lpstrTitle = value
End Property
 
' Set default file extension
Public Property Let DefaultExt(value As String)
  Dlg.lpstrDefExt = value
End Property
 
Public Property Let Filter(value As String)
  Dlg.lpstrFilter = value
End Property
 
Public Property Let Owner(value As Long)
  Dlg.hwndOwner = value
End Property
 
 
Public Sub Initialize()
  Dlg.lStructSize = Len(Dlg)
  Dlg.hInstance = App.hInstance
  Dlg.nFilterIndex = 1
  Dlg.lpstrFile = String(257, 0)
  Dlg.nMaxFile = Len(Dlg.lpstrFile) - 1
  Dlg.lpstrFileTitle = Dlg.lpstrFile
  Dlg.nMaxFileTitle = Dlg.nMaxFile
  Dlg.lpstrInitialDir = vbNullString
  Dlg.flags = 0
End Sub
 
Public Sub ShowOpenDialog()
  bDialogExecuted = GetOpenFileName(Dlg)
End Sub
 
Public Sub ShowSaveDialog()
  bDialogExecuted = GetSaveFileName(Dlg)
End Sub

VB6 | Crittografia ROT-N

Crittografia Rot-N in VB6.
Crittografia molto semplice, non affidabile per una protezione sicura.

'********************************************************************************
'* Title:       ROT-N encryption module                                         *
'* Author:      Viotto                                                          *
'* Website:     www.viotto-security.net                                         *
'* Description: simple substitution cipher for bytes: each input                *
'*              byte value will be rotated by the specified number of bytes.    *
'* Purpose:     simple encryption for text and files.                           *
'* Usage:       Encryption key should be a number between 1 and 255; higher     *
'*              numbers will work but they cause redundant rotations.           *
'* Notes:       with key value 128 (ROT-128), you can use same function to      *
'*              encrypt and decrypt data. Otherwise you can use ROTN_Forward    *
'*              to encrypt and ROTN_Backward to decrypt.                        *
'*                                                                              *
'********************************************************************************

Public Function ROTN_Forward(ByVal InputData As String, ByVal NumKey As Integer) As String
Dim i As Long, OutChar As String
For i = 1 To Len(InputData)
OutChar = Asc(Mid(InputData, i, 1)) + NumKey
While OutChar > 255
OutChar = OutChar - 256
Wend
ROTN_Forward = ROTN_Forward + Chr(OutChar)
Next
End Function

Public Function ROTN_Backward(ByVal InputData As String, ByVal NumKey As Integer) As String
Dim i As Long, OutChar As String
For i = 1 To Len(InputData)
OutChar = Asc(Mid(InputData, i, 1)) - NumKey
While OutChar < 0
OutChar = OutChar + 256
Wend
ROTN_Backward = ROTN_Backward + Chr(OutChar)
Next
End Function

VB6 | Ottieni il percorso del browser predefinito

con poche righe di codice e nessuna API di Windows.

Function DefaultBrowser() As String
  Dim regshell As Object
  Set regshell = CreateObject("Wscript.Shell")
  ' Reads the registry value where is stored the default application to use with HTTP
  DefaultBrowser = regshell.regread("HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT\HTTP\shell\open\command\")
  ' Removes shell parameters after the actual path, preserving only path included in double             ' quotes
  DefaultBrowser = Left(DefaultBrowser, InStr(1, DefaultBrowser, ".exe", vbTextCompare) + 4)
  ' Removes double quotes (")
  DefaultBrowser = Replace(DefaultBrowser, Chr(34), vbNullString)
End Function
Menu